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PI-Submitted Research Highlights for
Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program

Tundra Carbon Losses With Rapid Permafrost Thaw

Ted Schuur
Northern Arizona University

Highlight

May 8, 2017

Non-linear CO2 flux response to seven years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw.

The Science 
Frozen in permafrost soil northern latitudes store almost twice as much carbon as is currently in the atmosphere. Rapid Arctic warming is expected to expose previously frozen soil carbon to microbial decomposition and increase CO2 release to the atmosphere. The impact of permafrost thaw on the CO2 balance is however unclear because warmer temperatures and nutrients released from thawing permafrost also increase plant growth and could offset CO2 losses. We used an experimental warming manipulation to distinguish the effect of warmer air temperature from the effect of warmer soil and permafrost thaw on tundra ecosystem CO2 uptake and loss.

The Impact
Models and observations currently disagree over how Arctic warming will affect the CO2 balance of tundra ecosystems and few studies combine warmer air temperatures and permafrost thaw to evaluate ecosystem CO2 balance. This work demonstrates that tundra CO2 uptake and loss responded much more strongly to permafrost thaw than to warmer air temperatures alone. Rapid permafrost thaw did initially stimulate CO2 uptake during the summer, but leveled off with very deep thaw. In all years of the experiment summer CO2 uptake was insufficient to offset year-round CO2 losses.

Summary
Seven years of experimental air and soil warming in tundra show that soil warming and permafrost thaw had a much stronger effect on carbon balance than air warming. Permafrost thaw initially stimulated greater summer CO2 uptake than CO2 loss, however the initial increases were not sustained. As thaw continued to progress, summer CO2 uptake and CO2 loss leveled off. Leveling off CO2 uptake and release could be explained by slowing of plant growth and greater soil saturation as thaw caused the ground surface to collapse. The complex interactions between permafrost thaw, plant growth, and soil moisture could be captured mathematically by a quadratic relationship showing that the effect of thaw on CO2 uptake and loss changed over time. Models and measurements used to estimate CO2 losses during the winter found that the tundra was losing CO2 on an annual basis, even during those summers when thaw stimulated high plant growth and CO2 uptake.

Contacts (BER PM)
Ted Schuur
Northern Arizona University, Center for Ecosystem Science and Society (ECOSS)
ted.schuur@nau.edu

(PI Contact)
Daniel Stover and Jared DeForest
SC-23.1
Daniel.Stover@science.doe.gov (301-903-0289) and Jared.DeForest@science.doe.gov (301-903-1678)

Funding
This work was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program (DE-SC0006982 and DE-SC0014085); National Science Foundation CAREER program (#0747195); National Science Foundation Bonanza Creek LTER program (#1026415); National Science Foundation Office of Polar Prpgrams (#1203777); National Parks Inventory and Monitoring Program.

Publications
[Mauritz, M. et al. Nonlinear CO2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw. Global Change Biology (2017), doi:10.1111/gcb.13661.

Related Links
Schuur Lab - Ecosystem Dynamics Research
Data Interpretation: Carbon balance in an Arctic Warming Manipulation

This work was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program (DE-SC0006982 and DE-SC0014085); National Science Foundation CAREER program (#0747195); National Science Foundation Bonanza Creek LTER program (#1026415); National Science Foundation Office of Polar Prpgrams (#1203777); National Parks Inventory and Monitoring Program.


Photos of four seasons in the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research (CiPEHR) site, by M. Mauritz and S. Natali. This image appears as a graphical abstract with the journal article. Permission is given for use in the highlights database and for other BER users. 

midsized version

Artistic interpretation of tundra CO2 uptake and loss with permafrost thaw and accounting for CO2 dynamics in the summer and winter. Drawing by Victor Leshyk. Permission is given for use in the highlights database and for other BER users. 

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