Lara M. Kueppers
UC Merced and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
1 December 2016
Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest
Using field experiments in the Rocky Mountains, scientists tested the sensitivity of emerging tree seedlings to artificial warming and watering at three locations along a mountainside to understand whether trees will be able to migrate upward in elevation as the climate changes.
Most vegetation models assume that forest trees will track their environmental “niche” as climate warms, including upslope to higher elevations. But there is little understanding of climate constraints on seedlings, which are the future of the forest. The unexpected results of intensive field experiments in Colorado indicate that warming reduces the odds of seedlings establishing at and above their current upper limits, as well as in the forest, or provides no net benefit. Seeds sourced from higher elevation trees also performed relatively poorly, suggesting that past genetic adaptation to local conditions may hinder upslope tree advances, a finding counter to current theory.
Climate warming is expected to promote upslope shifts in forests. However, common gardens sown with seed collected from two different elevations and subjected to climate manipulations using infrared heaters and manual watering indicate that warming and local genotype may constrain tree seedling recruitment above current treeline. Negative effects of warming in forest, treeline, and alpine sites were partly offset by watering, suggesting growing season moisture may limit establishment of future subalpine forests. Greater climate sensitivity of Engelmann spruce compared with limber pine portends potential contraction in the elevational range of Engelmann spruce and changes in the composition of high-elevation Rocky Mountain forests. The greater availability of poorer quality seed at the upper forest edge could act to further slow upslope shifts.
Contacts (BER PM)
Daniel Stover and Jared DeForest
Daniel.Stover@science.doe.gov (301-903-0289) and Jared.DeForest@science.doe.gov (301-903-1678)
Lara M. Kueppers
Research Scientist, UC Merced and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com (510-486-5813)
This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-07ER64457).
Kueppers, L. M., et al. “Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest.” Global Change Biology (2016). doi: 10.1111/gcb.13561.
UC Merced. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-07ER64457)