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PI-Submitted Research Highlights for
Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program

Anaerobic microsites have an unaccounted role in soil carbon stabilization

Scott Fendorf
Stanford University

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Nov 28 2017

Anaerobic microsites within soils impart an unrecognized metabolic protection to carbon, creating a carbon sink vulnerable to climate and land-use change.

The Science
Mechanisms controlling soil carbon storage and feedbacks to the climate system remain poorly constrained. Here, a team a research led by Stanfords show that anaerobic microsites stabilize soil carbon by shifting microbial metabolism to less efficient anaerobic respiration and protecting reduced organic carbon compounds from decomposition.

The Impact
Without recognizing the importance of anaerobic microsites in stabilizing carbon in soils, terrestrial ecosystem models are likely to underestimate the vulnerability of the soil carbon reservoir to disturbance induced by climate or land use change. Further, carbon mitigation strategies based largely on land management can be optimized accordingly to maximize soil storage. 

Summary
Soils represent the largest carbon reservoir within terrestrial ecosystems. The mechanisms controlling the amount of carbon stored and its feedback to the climate and Earth system, however, remain poorly resolved. Global landmodels assume that carbon cycling in upland soils is entirely driven by aerobic respiration; the impact of anaerobic microsites (small oxygen poor sites in the soil) prevalent even within well-drained soils is missed within this framework. Here, they show that anaerobic microsites are important regulators of soil carbon persistence, shifting microbial metabolism to less efficient anaerobic respiration, and selectively protecting otherwise bioavailable, reduced organic compounds such as lipids and waxes from decomposition. Further, shifting from anaerobic to aerobic conditions leads to a 10-fold increase in volume-specific mineralization rate, illustrating the sensitivity of anaerobically protected carbon to disturbance. The vulnerability of anaerobically protected carbon to future climate or land_use change thus constitutes a yet unrecognized soil carbon–climate feedback that should be incorporated into terrestrial ecosystem models.

Contacts
(BER PM)
Daniel Stover
SC-23.1
Daniel.Stover@science.doe.gov (301-903-0289)

(PI Contact)
Scott Fendorf (lead PI)
Stanford University
Email: Fendorf@stanford.edu

Marco Keiluweit
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Email: keiluweit@umass.edu

Funding
This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Program (Award Number DE-FG02-13ER65542), and Subsurface Biogeochemistry Program (Award Number DE-SC0016544). A portion of this research was performed using EMSL, a DOE Office of Science User Facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Publications
Keiluweit M, Wanzek T, Kleber M, Nico P, and Fendorf S (2017) Anaerobic microsites have an unaccounted role in soil carbon stabilization. Nature Communications 8:1771 . doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-01406-6

Related Links
Phys.org: Disrupting sensitive soils could make climate change worse, researchers find 
Science Daily: Soil researchers quantify an underappreciated factor in carbon release to the atmosphere
Engadget: Unearthing oxygen-starved bacteria might worsen climate change

This work was performed by M Keiluweit (University of Massachusetts Amherst), T Wanzek and M Kleber (Oregon State University), P Nico (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and S Fendorf (Stanford University). This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Program (Award Number DE-FG02-13ER65542), and Subsurface Biogeochemistry Program (Award Number DE-SC0016544). A portion of this research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a DOE Office of Science User Facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.  13C NMR and FT-ICR-MS analyses at EMSL were performed by M Tfaily and P Reardon. 

 

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