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Whole-Ecosystem Warming Method

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Closeup of experimental enclosure built to provide warming from the tree tops to the deep soil (–2 m to –3 m). The open-topped enclosures encompass 12-m diameter internal study areas, with 8-m tall side walls. A subsurface corral isolates the belowground peat environment for measures of local hydrologic conditions. Aboveground warming enclosures are in the final phase of construction. More images available at

Credit or Source: Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.


U.S. DOE. July 2015. Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. (PDF)

Prepared by the Biological and Environmental Research Information System, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and