Organisms and processes acting at local spatial scales of rhizospheres and soil particles (bottom left, y-axis) provide ecosystem services that aggregate at larger scales to ecosystem and landscape-level impacts (upper left, y-axis). Microbial and plant communities also change through time (x-axis), resulting in development trajectories that can span decades. Models allow local attributes and outcomes to be extrapolated to larger areas and projected to longer futures.
Credit or Source: Top center green box: soil map background courtesy U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. Figure at bottom, to right of black arrow: soil aggregate illustration modified from Jastrow and Miller 1998.
U.S. DOE. 2014. Research for Sustainable Bioenergy: Linking Genomic and Ecosystem Sciences, Workshop Report, DOE/SC-0167. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. genomicscience.energy.gov/sustainability/. (p. 2) (PDF)