These confocal fluorescence images show switchgrass cell walls (A) before pretreatment with the EmimAc ionic liquid and (B) 10 minutes after treatment, in which the cell walls have swollen in size, a prelude to complete solubilization of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.
Credit or Source: Image courtesy of Seema Singh, Sandia National Laboratories
US DOE. 2010. Bioenergy Research Centers: An Overview of the Science, DOE/SC-0127, US Department of Energy. (p. 12) (website)