Slight variations in our DNA sequences can have a major impact on whether or not we develop a disease and on our particular responses to such environmental insults as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. They also impact our reactions to drugs and other therapies. One of the most common types of sequence variation is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). SNPs are sites in the human genome where individuals differ in their DNA sequence, often by a single base. For example, one person might have the base A (adenine) where another might have C (cytosine), and so on. Researchers in public and private sectors are generating maps of these sites, which can occur in genes as well as in noncoding regions. Scientists believe such SNP maps will help them identify the multiple genes associated with such complex diseases as cancer, diabetes, vascular disease, and some forms of mental illness. SNP maps provide valuable targets for biomedical and pharmaceutical research.
Credit or Source: Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. science.energy.gov/ber/