The strategies discussed in this roadmap are based on first developing technologies to allow more energy efficient and chemically benign enzymatic pretreatment. Saccharification and fermentation would be consolidated into a simple step and ultimately into a single organism or stable mixed culture (consolidated bioprocessing), thus removing multiple whole steps in converting biomass to ethanol (see next figure in set).
Credit or Source: Adapted from M. Himmel and J. Sheehan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
U.S. DOE. 2006. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda, DOE/SC/EE-0095, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. (p. 15) (website)