BER launches Environmental System Science Program. Visit our new website under construction!

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

BER Research Highlights

Aerosol Swelling — A Source of Error When Estimating the Aerosol First Indirect Effect
Published: April 30, 2018
Posted: September 07, 2018

Scientists use data from four ARM sites to understand differences between observationally-based and model-based estimates of the aerosol effect on cloud properties.

The Science
Aerosol particles in the atmosphere can impact the Earth’s energy balance directly through scattering and absorbing solar energy and indirectly by impacting cloud properties. In the aerosol “first indirect effect,” an increase in aerosol number concentration while the liquid water amount in the cloud stays the same leads to more, but smaller cloud droplets and higher solar reflectivity. As cloud condensation nuclei (CCN; the number of aerosol particles that serve as nuclei for cloud droplets) is difficult to measure globally, scientists often use aerosol optical depth (which can be measured by visible satellite or ground-based radiometers) as a proxy for CCN when estimating the first indirect effect. Estimates for the first aerosol indirect effect from ground-based, aircraft, and satellite measurements vary widely and are often lower than the values produced by model simulations. For this reason, aerosol-cloud interactions are considered one of the largest current sources of uncertainty in climate model projections. In this study, scientists use detailed measurements from four ARM sites around the world to investigate reasons for the difference in observationally-based and model-based estimates of the aerosol indirect effect.

The Impact
The study finds that swelling of aerosol particles in high relative humidity conditions may be an important factor in differing estimates of the aerosol first indirect effect. The amount of swelling that an individual aerosol particle experiences is based on the chemical composition of the aerosol particle as well as the environmental conditions. As aerosol particles swell, their optical scattering increases, leading to a larger aerosol optical depth even though the concentration of aerosol particles is unchanged. Therefore, observationally-based estimates that use aerosol optical depth as a proxy for CCN may underestimate the first indirect effect. This finding helps explain the systematic difference between satellite-based estimates of the first indirect effect and those simulated by earth system models.

Scientists used extensive measurements of aerosol and cloud properties made at four Atmospheric Radiation Measurement sites around the world to identify and quantify the influence of aerosol hygroscopicity and aerosol swelling on the aerosol first indirect effect. These sites have distinct aerosol properties and experience different meteorological conditions. The magnitude of the first indirect effect for aerosol particles with stronger aerosol hygroscopicity is systematically larger than that for aerosol particles with weaker aerosol hygroscopicity. A one-unit enhancement in the aerosol scattering coefficient by the swelling effect leads to a systematic underestimation of the aerosol first indirect effect by about 23%. This can result in a significant underestimation of the indirect effect-related radiative forcing (by several W m-2 depending on aerosol properties and relative humidity). This likely contributes significantly to the systematic difference between observation-based, especially satellite-based, estimates of the first indirect effect and those simulated by general circulation models. It may also partially explain systematic variations in the first indirect effect with water vapor amount as noted by others.

Contacts (BER PM)
Sally McFarlane
ARM Program Manager

(PI Contact)
Zhanqing Li
University of Maryland

The study is supported by the following research grants: the National Science Foundation of U.S. (AGS1534670) and China (91544217) and the Key R&D Program (2017YFC1501702). Ground-based observations from the U.S. Southern Great Plains, Graciosa Island in the Azores, the Ganges Valley in India, and ShouXian, China, were obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (Data can be accessed at The large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic data were obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model runs for ARM analysis provided by the ECMWF.

Liu, J. and Z. Li. "Significant Underestimation in the Optically Based Estimation of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect Induced by the Aerosol Swelling Effect." Geophysical Research Letters, 45(11), 5690-5699 (2018). [DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077679]


Topic Areas:

  • Research Area: Earth and Environmental Systems Modeling
  • Research Area: Atmospheric System Research
  • Facility: DOE ARM User Facility

Division: SC-33.1 Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, BER


BER supports basic research and scientific user facilities to advance DOE missions in energy and environment. More about BER

Recent Highlights

Jan 11, 2022
No Honor Among Copper Thieves
Findings provide a novel means to manipulate methanotrophs for a variety of environmental and in [more...]

Dec 06, 2021
New Genome Editing Tools Can Edit Within Microbial Communities
Two new technologies allow scientists to edit specific species and genes within complex laborato [more...]

Oct 27, 2021
Fungal Recyclers: Fungi Reuse Fire-Altered Organic Matter
Degrading pyrogenic (fire-affected) organic matter is an important ecosystem function of fungi i [more...]

Oct 19, 2021
Microbes Offer a Glimpse into the Future of Climate Change
Scientists identify key features in microbes that predict how warming affects carbon dioxide emi [more...]

Aug 25, 2021
Assessing the Production Cost and Carbon Footprint of a Promising Aviation Biofuel
Biomass-derived DMCO has the potential to serve as a low-carbon, high-performance jet fuel blend [more...]

List all highlights (possible long download time)