U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

BER Research Highlights


Newly Discovered Bacteria Can Break Down Biomass
Published: March 01, 2018
Posted: April 17, 2018

Newly discovered bacteria in stomachs of ruminants could hold a key to creating more efficient and environmentally friendly biofuels and waste management processes.

The bacteria from ruminants' digestive systems could provide insights for biomass conversion.

The Science
Despite decades of research, how ruminants deconstruct plant biomass in their stomachs is still something of a mystery. Now, an international team of scientists has identified a previously unknown family of bacteria and complex enzymes that break down plant biomass and appear to be critical for ruminants to be herbivorous.

The Impact
Studying the digestive systems of ruminants like cows, sheep, and even reindeer may help scientists uncover more efficient and environmentally friendly ways to process waste and generate energy, as well as improve our understanding of ruminant nutrition. The previously unknown family of bacteria discovered in this study appears to actively degrade plant biomass in the stomachs of ruminants using complex enzymes that are different from those that are already well known to scientists. Understanding these bacteria could help scientists design animal feeding strategies and commercial systems for biofuels and waste management.

Summary
Using detailed information about the molecular biology of switchgrass and corn stover—both widely used to create biofuels—the scientists identified a previously unknown family of bacteria found in both cows and sheep. Team members included researchers from the Norwegian University of Life Sciences; the Ohio State University; EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE Office of Science user facility; Germany’s Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research; the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; University of Michigan Medical School; and University of California, Davis. The team described a family representative found in the rumen of two cows. Data gathered using EMSL’s Orbitrap mass spectrometer helped scientists realize the population of bacteria was metabolically active in the rumen. In both the feedstock and the cows, the bacteria secreted multi-modular enzymes believed to be very powerful in biomass conversion. The metabolism and abundance of these bacteria indicate they may play an important role in allowing ruminants, and commercial processes, to deconstruct biomass.

BER PM Contact
Paul Bayer, SC-23.1, 301-903-5324

PI Contact
Phillip Pope
Norwegian University of Life Sciences
phil.pope@nmbu.no

Funding
This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, including support of the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and the Advanced Photon Source, both DOE Office of Science user facilities, as well as the European Research Council.

Publication
Naas, A.E, L.M. Solden, A.D. Norbeck, H. Brewer, L.H. Hagen, I.M. Heggenes, A.C. McHardy, R.I. Mackie, L. Paša-Tolic, M.Ø. Arntzen, V.G.H. Eijsink, N.M. Koropatkin, M. Hess, K.C. Wrighton, and P.B. Pope. “‘Candidatus Paraporphyromonas polyenzymogenes’ encodes multi-modular cellulases linked to the Type IX secretion system.” Microbiome 6, 44 (2018). [DOI: 10.1186/s40168-018-0421-8]

Related Links
PNNL Science Highlight: Newly Discovered Bacteria Can Break Down Biomass

Topic Areas:

  • Research Area: DOE Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
  • Research Area: Microbes and Communities
  • Research Area: Plant Systems and Feedstocks, Plant-Microbe Interactions
  • Research Area: Structural Biology Infrastructure

Division: SC-23.1 Climate and Environmental Sciences Division, BER

 

BER supports basic research and scientific user facilities to advance DOE missions in energy and environment. More about BER

Recent Highlights

Aug 24, 2019
New Approach for Studying How Microbes Influence Their Environment
A diverse group of scientists suggests a common framework and targeting of known microbial processes [more...]

Aug 08, 2019
Nutrient-Hungry Peatland Microbes Reduce Carbon Loss Under Warmer Conditions
Enzyme production in peatlands reduces carbon lost to respiration under future high temperatures. [more...]

Aug 05, 2019
Amazon Forest Response to CO2 Fertilization Dependent on Plant Phosphorus Acquisition
AmazonFACE Model Intercomparison. The Science Plant growth is dependent on the availabi [more...]

Jul 29, 2019
A Slippery Slope: Soil Carbon Destabilization
Carbon gain or loss depends on the balance between competing biological, chemical, and physical reac [more...]

Jul 15, 2019
Field Evaluation of Gas Analyzers for Measuring Ecosystem Fluxes
How gas analyzer type and correction method impact measured fluxes. The Science A side- [more...]

List all highlights (possible long download time)