BER launches Environmental System Science Program. Visit our new website under construction!

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

BER Research Highlights

Probing Vertical Air Motions in Deep Convective Clouds Using ARM Radar Observations
Published: August 04, 2017
Posted: January 26, 2018

ARM multi-Doppler radar observations can be used to retrieve the 3-D vertical wind field in deep convective clouds.

The Science
Deep convective clouds contribute to Earth’s hydrological cycle and the vertical transport of energy, moisture, and mass from near the earth’s surface to the upper troposphere. The vertical motions in these clouds regulate precipitation amount, intensity, and associated cloudiness. However, despite the fundamental importance of these vertical motions, they are challenging to observe. This paper demonstrates an advanced technique for retrieving three-dimensional (3-D) vertical winds over cloud system scales from scanning radar measurements. Comparisons with complementary vertically-pointing radar wind profiler observations show close agreement.

The Impact
The advanced technique provides a robust, stable solution of 3-D vertical winds in cases for which traditional techniques have difficulty. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) radar network provides the necessary observations for retrieving 3-D vertical wind fields in deep convective events. These retrievals have the potential to accelerate our understanding of the dynamical and microphysical processes of deep convective clouds and provide robust observational targets for evaluating high-resolution model simulations.

The radars at the SGP ARM Climate Research Facility include several precipitation-probing scanning and profiling weather radars that operate as a network and, thus, provide state-of-the-art measurement capabilities in deep convective clouds. Complimentary radar measurements are also provided by the National Weather Service’s Next Generation Weather Radars (NEXRAD). A team of scientists combined the information of the radar Doppler velocity measurements from all these radars in a multi-Doppler data assimilation technique using a 3-D variational (3DVAR) algorithm. The aim is to retrieve the best estimate of the 3-D air motions within deep convective cloud systems that best matches all of the multi-Doppler radar observations. The 3DVAR technique was applied to several deep convective cloud events observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E), a joint field program between ARM and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the first time, a direct evaluation is performed of retrieved 3-D vertical air velocities with those from collocated, vertically pointing radar wind profilers. The retrieved vertical velocity is well matched with that from the radar wind profilers at each height. An analysis comparing with a traditional integration technique suggests that the 3DVAR technique provides a robust, stable solution for cases in which traditional integration techniques have difficulty with satisfying velocity observations and a mass continuity equation simultaneously.

Contacts (BER PM)
Shaima Nasiri
ASR Program Manager

Ashley Williamson
ASR Program Manager

Sally McFarlane
ARM Program Manager

(PI Contact)
Mariko Oue
School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University

Pavlos Kollias
School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University / Environmental and Climate Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory

This paper was authored by employees (Pavlos Kollias, Scott Giangrande) of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under contract no. DE-SC0012704 with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The contribution of Scott Collis through Argonne National Laboratory was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. Data were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Climate and Environmental Sciences Division.

All ARM datasets used for this study may be downloaded at (ARM, 1996, 2011a, b, c).

North, K.W., M. Oue, P. Kollias, S. E. Giangrande, S. M. Collis, and C. K. Potvin. “Vertical air motion retrievals in deep convective clouds using the ARM scanning radar network in Oklahoma during MC3E.” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 10, 2785-2806 (2017) [DOI: 10.5194/amt-10-2785-2017]
(Reference link)

Related Links
ARM Campaign: Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

Topic Areas:

  • Research Area: Atmospheric System Research
  • Facility: DOE ARM User Facility

Division: SC-33.1 Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, BER


BER supports basic research and scientific user facilities to advance DOE missions in energy and environment. More about BER

Recent Highlights

Mar 23, 2021
Molecular Connections from Plants to Fungi to Ants
Lipids transfer energy and serve as an inter-kingdom communication tool in leaf-cutter ants&rsqu [more...]

Mar 19, 2021
Microbes Use Ancient Metabolism to Cycle Phosphorus
Microbial cycling of phosphorus through reduction-oxidation reactions is older and more widespre [more...]

Feb 22, 2021
Warming Soil Means Stronger Microbe Networks
Soil warming leads to more complex, larger, and more connected networks of microbes in those soi [more...]

Jan 27, 2021
Labeling the Thale Cress Metabolites
New data pipeline identifies metabolites following heavy isotope labeling.

Analysis [more...]

Aug 31, 2020
Novel Bacterial Clade Reveals Origin of Form I Rubisco

  • All plant biomass is sourced from the carbon-fixing enzyme Rub [more...]

List all highlights (possible long download time)