Molecular-level understanding of cellulose structure reveals why it resists degradation and could lead to cost-effective biofuels.
A major bottleneck hindering cost-effective production of biofuels and many valuable chemicals is the difficulty of breaking down cellulose—an important structural component of plant cell walls. A recent study addressed this problem by characterizing molecular features that make cellulose resistant to degradation.
The findings reveal for the first time structural differences between surface layers and the crystalline core of the two types of cellulose found in plant cell walls. These insights could help researchers develop efficient, cost-effective strategies for breaking down cellulose for renewable energy production and other industrial applications.
A molecular-level understanding of the resistance of cellulose to degradation is a key step toward overcoming the fundamental barrier to making biofuels cost-competitive. However, significant questions remain with respect to cellulose’s structure, particularly its surface layers and crystalline core. To address this knowledge gap, researchers from Washington State University; the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a DOE Office of Science user facility ; and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a novel high-resolution technique called Total Internal Reflection Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (TIR-SFG-VS) and combined it with conventional non-TIR SFG-VS to characterize molecular structures of cellulose’s surface layers and crystalline bulk, respectively. The researchers used Sum Frequency Generation for Surface Vibrational Spectroscopy at EMSL. The findings revealed for the first time the structural differences between the surface layers and the crystalline core of cellulose. By revealing cellulose’s conformation and non-uniformity, the results challenge the traditional understanding of cellulose materials and showcase the strong value of powerful spectroscopic tools in advancing knowledge about the structure of cellulose.
BER PM Contact
Paul Bayer, SC-23.1, 301-903-5324
Washington State University
This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science (Office of Biological and Environmental Research), including support of the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a DOE Office of Science User Facility; a DARPA Young Faculty Award; and the U.S. National Science Foundation.
L. Zhang, L. Fu, H.-F. Wang, and B. Yang, “Discovery of Cellulose Surface Layer Conformation by Nonlinear Vibrational Spectroscopy.” Scientific Reports 7:44319 (2017). DOI: 10.1038/srep44319 (Reference link)
Unplugging the Cellulose Bottleneck EMSL science highlight
New way to characterize cellulose, advance bioproducts WSU News Post
SC-23.2 Biological Systems Science Division, BER
BER supports basic research and scientific user facilities to advance DOE missions in energy and environment. More about BER
Aug 24, 2019
New Approach for Studying How Microbes Influence Their Environment
A diverse group of scientists suggests a common framework and targeting of known microbial processes [more...]
Aug 08, 2019
Nutrient-Hungry Peatland Microbes Reduce Carbon Loss Under Warmer Conditions
Enzyme production in peatlands reduces carbon lost to respiration under future high temperatures. [more...]
Aug 05, 2019
Amazon Forest Response to CO2 Fertilization Dependent on Plant Phosphorus Acquisition
AmazonFACE Model Intercomparison. The Science Plant growth is dependent on the availabi [more...]
Jul 29, 2019
A Slippery Slope: Soil Carbon Destabilization
Carbon gain or loss depends on the balance between competing biological, chemical, and physical reac [more...]
Jul 15, 2019
Field Evaluation of Gas Analyzers for Measuring Ecosystem Fluxes
How gas analyzer type and correction method impact measured fluxes. The Science A side- [more...]
List all highlights (possible long download time)