U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

BER Research Highlights


Tundra Carbon Losses With Rapid Permafrost Thaw
Published: May 08, 2017
Posted: May 30, 2017

Non-linear CO2 flux response to seven years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw.

The Science 
Frozen in permafrost soil northern latitudes store almost twice as much carbon as is currently in the atmosphere. Rapid Arctic warming is expected to expose previously frozen soil carbon to microbial decomposition and increase CO2 release to the atmosphere. The impact of permafrost thaw on the CO2 balance is however unclear because warmer temperatures and nutrients released from thawing permafrost also increase plant growth and could offset CO2 losses. We used an experimental warming manipulation to distinguish the effect of warmer air temperature from the effect of warmer soil and permafrost thaw on tundra ecosystem CO2 uptake and loss.

The Impact
Models and observations currently disagree over how Arctic warming will affect the CO2 balance of tundra ecosystems and few studies combine warmer air temperatures and permafrost thaw to evaluate ecosystem CO2 balance. This work demonstrates that tundra CO2 uptake and loss responded much more strongly to permafrost thaw than to warmer air temperatures alone. Rapid permafrost thaw did initially stimulate CO2 uptake during the summer, but leveled off with very deep thaw. In all years of the experiment, summer CO2 uptake was insufficient to offset year-round CO2 losses.

Summary
Seven years of experimental air and soil warming in tundra show that soil warming and permafrost thaw had a much stronger effect on carbon balance than air warming. Permafrost thaw initially stimulated greater summer CO2 uptake than CO2 loss, however the initial increases were not sustained. As thaw continued to progress, summer CO2 uptake and CO2 loss leveled off. Leveling off CO2 uptake and release could be explained by slowing of plant growth and greater soil saturation as thaw caused the ground surface to collapse. The complex interactions between permafrost thaw, plant growth, and soil moisture could be captured mathematically by a quadratic relationship showing that the effect of thaw on CO2 uptake and loss changed over time. Models and measurements used to estimate CO2 losses during the winter found that the tundra was losing CO2 on an annual basis, even during those summers when thaw stimulated high plant growth and CO2 uptake.

Contacts (BER PM)
Daniel Stover and Jared DeForest
SC-23.1
Daniel.Stover@science.doe.gov (301-903-0289) and Jared.DeForest@science.doe.gov (301-903-1678)

(PI Contact)
Ted Schuur
Northern Arizona University, Center for Ecosystem Science and Society (ECOSS)
ted.schuur@nau.edu

Funding
This work was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program (DE-SC0006982 and DE-SC0014085); National Science Foundation CAREER program (#0747195); National Science Foundation Bonanza Creek LTER program (#1026415); National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs (#1203777); National Parks Inventory and Monitoring Program.

Publications
[Mauritz, M. et al. Nonlinear CO2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw. Global Change Biology (2017), doi:10.1111/gcb.13661. (Reference link)

Related Links
Schuur Lab - Ecosystem Dynamics Research
Data Interpretation: Carbon balance in an Arctic Warming Manipulation

Topic Areas:

  • Research Area: Terrestrial Ecosystem Science

Division: SC-23.1 Climate and Environmental Sciences Division, BER

 

BER supports basic research and scientific user facilities to advance DOE missions in energy and environment. More about BER

Recent Highlights

Aug 24, 2019
New Approach for Studying How Microbes Influence Their Environment
A diverse group of scientists suggests a common framework and targeting of known microbial processes [more...]

Aug 08, 2019
Nutrient-Hungry Peatland Microbes Reduce Carbon Loss Under Warmer Conditions
Enzyme production in peatlands reduces carbon lost to respiration under future high temperatures. [more...]

Aug 05, 2019
Amazon Forest Response to CO2 Fertilization Dependent on Plant Phosphorus Acquisition
AmazonFACE Model Intercomparison. The Science Plant growth is dependent on the availabi [more...]

Jul 29, 2019
A Slippery Slope: Soil Carbon Destabilization
Carbon gain or loss depends on the balance between competing biological, chemical, and physical reac [more...]

Jul 15, 2019
Field Evaluation of Gas Analyzers for Measuring Ecosystem Fluxes
How gas analyzer type and correction method impact measured fluxes. The Science A side- [more...]

List all highlights (possible long download time)