U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

BER Research Highlights

The SSP4: A World of Deepening Inequality
Published: July 06, 2016
Posted: October 20, 2016

Researchers explored the consequences of a climate future that imposes high challenges to adaptation but low challenges to mitigation.

The Science
A recent study explores the implications of inequality on the evolution of energy, land, and climate.

The Impact
The Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 4, or SSP4, is part of a suite of scenarios designed to integrate climate change research over the coming decades to offer researchers an understanding of a climate future under a prescribed set of circumstances.

Researchers have developed five new scenarios, or Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), spanning a range of challenges to mitigation and adaptation to climate change. These scenarios are designed to be used throughout the climate community, including the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), facilitating integrated research on climate science, impacts, and mitigation. These scenarios were designed as part of a multiyear, multinational community effort.

SSP4, “Inequality” or “A Road Divided,” is one of these scenarios, characterized by low challenges to mitigation and high challenges to adaptation. Department of Energy researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, working at the Joint Global Change Research Institute describe, in quantitative terms, the SSP4 as implemented by the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), the marker model for this scenario. They used demographic and economic assumptions, in combination with technology and non-climate policy assumptions, to develop a quantitative representation of energy, land use and land cover, and emissions consistent with the SSP4 narrative. The scenario is one with stark differences within and across regions. High-income regions prosper, continuing to increase their demand for energy and food. Electrification increases in these regions, with the increased generation being met by nuclear and renewables. Low-income regions, however, stagnate due to limited economic growth. Growth in total consumption is dominated by increases in population, not increases in per capita consumption. Due to failures in energy access policies, these regions continue to depend on traditional biofuels, leading to high pollutant emissions. Declining dependence on fossil fuels in all regions means that total radiative forcing absent the inclusion of mitigation or impacts only reaches 6.4 W m-2 in 2100, making this a world with relatively low challenges to mitigation. The research explored the challenges of following more constrained Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) pathways in an SSP4 world, finding that the imposition of economic signals to reduce emissions has varied effects across regions. In particular, the SSP4-RCP combination scenarios are characterized by afforestation in the high-income regions and deforestation in the low-income regions. Furthermore, the research shows that the SSP4 is a world with low challenges to emissions reductions, but only to a point, due to challenges in reducing land-related emissions.

Contacts (BER PM)
Bob Vallario
Integrated Assessment Research Program

(PI Contact)
Katherine Calvin
Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Katherine.Calvin@pnnl.gov, 301-314-6744

This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research as part of the Integrated Assessment Research Program.

Calvin, K., et al. 2016. “The SSP4: A World of Deepening Inequality,” Global Environmental Change, DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.010. (Reference link)

Topic Areas:

  • Research Area: Multisector Dynamics (formerly Integrated Assessment)

Division: SC-23.1 Climate and Environmental Sciences Division, BER


BER supports basic research and scientific user facilities to advance DOE missions in energy and environment. More about BER

Recent Highlights

May 10, 2019
Quantifying Decision Uncertainty in Water Management via a Coupled Agent-Based Model
Considering risk perception can improve the representation of human decision-making processes in age [more...]

May 09, 2019
Projecting Global Urban Area Growth Through 2100 Based on Historical Time Series Data and Future Scenarios
Study provides country-specific urban area growth models and the first dataset on country-level urba [more...]

May 05, 2019
Calibrating Building Energy Demand Models to Refine Long-Term Energy Planning
A new, flexible calibration approach improved model accuracy in capturing year-to-year changes in bu [more...]

May 03, 2019
Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of Demeter for Better Downscaling of Global Land Use and Land Cover Projections
Researchers improved the Demeter model’s performance by calibrating key parameters and establi [more...]

Apr 22, 2019
Representation of U.S. Warm Temperature Extremes in Global Climate Model Ensembles
Representation of warm temperature events varies considerably among global climate models, which has [more...]

List all highlights (possible long download time)