U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

BER Research Highlights


Nitrogen Availability Increases in a Tundra Ecosystem During Experimental Permafrost Thaw
Published: February 26, 2016
Posted: April 27, 2016

Plant access to an essential nutrient increases under warmed conditions.

The Science
Researchers warmed a tundra ecosystem in Alaska’s interior for 5 years with a novel experimental method. With this method, the researchers were able to warm the deep soil and degrade the permafrost, as well as document increases in plant access to soil nitrogen, a key nutrient.

The Impact
Global warming will result in the thaw of perennially frozen soils (permafrost), with releases of carbon to the atmosphere. However, this study’s findings show that increased growth of tundra plants could remove some of this carbon from the atmosphere, thus offsetting, in part, the accelerating feedback to climate change.

Summary
Researchers monitored nitrogen in tundra plants and soils during 5 years of experimental warming to quantify how plant access to soil nitrogen changed during permafrost thaw. Nitrogen is a scarce nutrient in high-latitude ecosystems, and plant access to soil nitrogen currently limits plant growth. Within 5 years of warming, plant-available nitrogen in soils increased. Warmed plants were able to grow larger and take up more carbon from the atmosphere than their unwarmed (control) neighbors. Though the study showed that plant biomass increased with warming, it is unlikely that the observed increase in plant carbon storage will be greater than losses of permafrost carbon at this site. In sum, plant carbon uptake offsets, in part, carbon releases from soils, but the system remains a net source of carbon to the atmosphere as a result of permafrost thaw and thus contributes toward accelerating climate change.

Contacts (BER PM)
Daniel Stover, SC-23.1, daniel.stover@science.doe.gov, 301-903-0289; and Jared DeForest, SC-23.1, jared.deforest@science.doe.gov, 301-903-1678

PI Contact
Edward A. G. Schuur
Center for Ecosystem Sciences and Society, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011; Ted.Schuur@nau.edu

Funding
This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science program; National Science Foundation CAREER program; National Parks Inventory and Monitoring Program; National Science Foundation Bonanza Creek LTER program; National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs; and a Discover Denali Research Fellowship awarded to V. Salmon.

Publications
Salmon, V. G., et al. “Nitrogen availability increases in a tundra ecosystem during 5 years of experimental permafrost thaw.” Glob. Change Biol. 22(5), 1927–41 (2015). [DOI:10.1111/gcb.13204]. (Reference link)

Topic Areas:

  • Research Area: Terrestrial Ecosystem Science
  • Research Area: Carbon Cycle, Nutrient Cycling

Division: SC-23.1 Climate and Environmental Sciences Division, BER

 

BER supports basic research and scientific user facilities to advance DOE missions in energy and environment. More about BER

Recent Highlights

Aug 24, 2019
New Approach for Studying How Microbes Influence Their Environment
A diverse group of scientists suggests a common framework and targeting of known microbial processes [more...]

Aug 08, 2019
Nutrient-Hungry Peatland Microbes Reduce Carbon Loss Under Warmer Conditions
Enzyme production in peatlands reduces carbon lost to respiration under future high temperatures. [more...]

Aug 05, 2019
Amazon Forest Response to CO2 Fertilization Dependent on Plant Phosphorus Acquisition
AmazonFACE Model Intercomparison. The Science Plant growth is dependent on the availabi [more...]

Jul 29, 2019
A Slippery Slope: Soil Carbon Destabilization
Carbon gain or loss depends on the balance between competing biological, chemical, and physical reac [more...]

Jul 15, 2019
Field Evaluation of Gas Analyzers for Measuring Ecosystem Fluxes
How gas analyzer type and correction method impact measured fluxes. The Science A side- [more...]

List all highlights (possible long download time)