BER launches Environmental System Science Program. Visit our new website under construction!

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

BER Research Highlights

Microbial Community Dynamics Dominate Greenhouse Gas Production in Thawing Permafrost
Published: October 23, 2014
Posted: January 22, 2015

Northern permafrost ecosystems are changing rapidly, with rising temperatures causing the transition of many previously frozen environments to wetlands. As permafrost thaws, the trapped organic carbon is accessible to decomposition by microbes and can be released to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding of these communities is limited, especially the specific nature of processes that impact rates of carbon decomposition and the balance of the carbon dioxide (CO2) versus methane (CH4) released to the atmosphere. Although both gases are GHGs, CH4 is much more potent in the short term, so understanding the microbial mechanisms driving these large-scale processes would significantly improve predictions of possible climate change impacts.

An interdisciplinary team of researchers led by the University of Arizona has examined microbial community dynamics at a site in northern Sweden that occupies a natural temperature gradient. Northern portions of this site are frozen permafrost while southern areas are thawed fens. Over several years, the team measured CO2 and CH4 production along the gradient, examined isotopic signatures of gases characteristic of distinct microbial processes, and correlated the data with measured shifts in microbial community composition and abundance. Only small amounts of GHGs were released from frozen permafrost, but in progressively more thawed sites, CH4 was the dominant product released. The team was able to link these observations with extensive shifts in microbial community composition, revealing a reproducible succession pattern of different types of CH4-producing microbes (methanogens) across the thaw gradient. Surprisingly, a single methanogen species, Candidatus Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis, was dominant in recently thawed sites and its relative abundance strongly correlated with the magnitude and specific type of CH4 produced at any given site.

The striking dominance of a single microbial species in mediating a large-scale carbon cycle process is highly unusual and provides an opportunity to more effectively track and predict the impacts of climate change across an entire region. The team has begun to incorporate integrated datasets on biogeochemical process measurements and microbial community patterns into ecosystem-scale models of carbon cycle processes. This effort represents a significant advance in understanding and more accurately representing critical biogeochemical processes in permafrost that are performed by microbes, improving predictions of climate change impacts on these delicate ecosystems and their potential atmospheric consequences.

Reference: McCalley, C. K., B. J. Woodcroft, S. B. Hodgkins, R. A. Wehr, E.-H. Kim, R. Mondav, P. M. Crill, J. P. Chanton, V. I. Rich, G. W. Tyson, and S. R. Saleska. 2014. “Methane Dynamics Regulated by Microbial Community Response to Permafrost Thaw,” Nature 514, 478-81. DOI: 10.1038/nature13798. (Reference link)

Contact: Joseph Graber, SC-23.2, (301) 903-1239
Topic Areas:

  • Research Area: Earth and Environmental Systems Modeling
  • Research Area: Carbon Cycle, Nutrient Cycling
  • Research Area: Microbes and Communities

Division: SC-33.2 Biological Systems Science Division, BER


BER supports basic research and scientific user facilities to advance DOE missions in energy and environment. More about BER

Recent Highlights

Jan 11, 2022
No Honor Among Copper Thieves
Findings provide a novel means to manipulate methanotrophs for a variety of environmental and in [more...]

Dec 06, 2021
New Genome Editing Tools Can Edit Within Microbial Communities
Two new technologies allow scientists to edit specific species and genes within complex laborato [more...]

Oct 27, 2021
Fungal Recyclers: Fungi Reuse Fire-Altered Organic Matter
Degrading pyrogenic (fire-affected) organic matter is an important ecosystem function of fungi i [more...]

Oct 19, 2021
Microbes Offer a Glimpse into the Future of Climate Change
Scientists identify key features in microbes that predict how warming affects carbon dioxide emi [more...]

Aug 25, 2021
Assessing the Production Cost and Carbon Footprint of a Promising Aviation Biofuel
Biomass-derived DMCO has the potential to serve as a low-carbon, high-performance jet fuel blend [more...]

List all highlights (possible long download time)