U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

BER Research Highlights

Black Carbon Reduces Snow Albedo
Published: March 04, 2012
Posted: March 26, 2013

Climate models indicate that the reduction of surface albedo caused by black carbon (BC) contamination of snow contributes to global warming and near-worldwide melting of ice. However, model predictions of BC-caused snow albedo reduction over a range of BC levels and snow grain sizes have not been verified by measurements. The main reason is that the BC effect is typically masked in natural environments by other variables that influence albedo, such as snow grain size, snow density, snow depth, and the interaction of sunlight with the underlying surface, tree cover, and solar zenith angle. Researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed an approach to isolate the effect of black carbon (BC) on snow albedo through laboratory experimentation with newly developed processes for making both pristine and BC-laden snow and techniques for measuring the morphology, albedo, and BC content of this snow. These methods enabled quantification of the snow albedo reduction associated with increasing amounts of BC and as a function of snow grain size. The study verified that black carbon contamination at levels that have been found in natural settings appreciably reduces snow albedo. Increasing the size of snow grains decreased snow albedo and amplified the radiative perturbation of black carbon, which justifies the aging-related positive feedbacks that are included in climate models. Moreover, these data provide an extensive verification of a snow, ice, and aerosol radiation model, which will be included in the next assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Reference: Hadley, O. L., and T. W. Kirchstetter. 2012. “Black-Carbon Reduction of Snow Albedo,” Nature Climate Change 2, 437–40. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1433]. (Reference link)

Topic Areas:

  • Research Area: Earth and Environmental Systems Modeling

Division: SC-23.1 Climate and Environmental Sciences Division, BER


BER supports basic research and scientific user facilities to advance DOE missions in energy and environment. More about BER

Recent Highlights

Aug 24, 2019
New Approach for Studying How Microbes Influence Their Environment
A diverse group of scientists suggests a common framework and targeting of known microbial processes [more...]

Aug 08, 2019
Nutrient-Hungry Peatland Microbes Reduce Carbon Loss Under Warmer Conditions
Enzyme production in peatlands reduces carbon lost to respiration under future high temperatures. [more...]

Aug 05, 2019
Amazon Forest Response to CO2 Fertilization Dependent on Plant Phosphorus Acquisition
AmazonFACE Model Intercomparison. The Science Plant growth is dependent on the availabi [more...]

Jul 29, 2019
A Slippery Slope: Soil Carbon Destabilization
Carbon gain or loss depends on the balance between competing biological, chemical, and physical reac [more...]

Jul 15, 2019
Field Evaluation of Gas Analyzers for Measuring Ecosystem Fluxes
How gas analyzer type and correction method impact measured fluxes. The Science A side- [more...]

List all highlights (possible long download time)